the heat out<img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/Figure_3_Modified.jpg?RenditionID=1" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><div id="__publishingReusableFragmentIdSection"><a href="/ReusableContent/36_.000">a</a></div><p>People around the world rely on high-tech electronic devices for daily business, transportation and communication. But those devices generate heat that has to dissipate for the devices to operate correctly. A mechanical engineer and materials scientist in the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis is developing an efficient two-phase cooling technology designed to cool future electronics in data centers, electric vehicles and artificial intelligence servers. </p><p>Damena Agonafer, assistant professor of mechanical engineering & materials science, received a five-year, $500,000 CAREER Award from the National Science Foundation to identify different modes of heat transfer during the evaporation process of nonsymmetrical microdroplets that sit atop micropillar structures on a cooling platform. CAREER awards support junior faculty who model the role of teacher-scholar through outstanding research, excellence in education and the integration of education and research within the context of the mission of their organization. One-third of current McKelvey Engineering faculty have received the award.</p><p>Agonafer's hollow micropillar structures, designed to dissipate heat in electronics, hold droplets of liquid on the surface. The bioinspired structure is based on a millennia-old insect called a springtail that can breathe through its skin, even buried in soil, through sharp edges on its surface. Like on the springtail, each droplet on the micropillar has sharp edges that form an energy barrier that keeps the liquid from spilling over. Agonafer has been working on the microstructure since he was a postdoctoral researcher at Stanford University and has determined the optimal size and shape of the droplet in previous studies. </p><p>"Now that we have this droplet, we want to study how it behaves and how the evaporation occurs," he said. "We're trying to understand the global and local behavior of asymmetric droplet evaporation."</p><p>Initially, Agonafer worked with circular micropillars on which the droplet was symmetrical in shape. Recently, however, he has been working with asymmetrical micropillars, including triangular or square shaped, to determine any change in the heat transfer performance. In this newly-funded work, he plans to sustain a droplet with a consistent size and shape using a constant pressure microfluidic system. He is working with the university's Office of Technology Management to obtain a patent on his technology. </p><p>"A significant portion of this work is to measure the local temperature and velocity profiles so we can understand what we call the micro-convection effects inside the droplet," he said. "Other studies have focused on how these currents behave in a symmetrical drop, but no one knows how they behave in asymmetric droplets."</p><p>As part of the grant, Agonafer plans work with high-school students underrepresented in the STEM fields by directing a summer research program to incorporate the results from this work into the curriculum designed to teach thermal science, surface science and electronics cooling. In addition, he plans a research experience program for teachers to help them with curriculum development. He also plans to work with industry to expose more undergraduate students to design competitions, as well as to develop a "Face-to-Tech" program to expose more engineering students from backgrounds underrepresented in the STEM fields to technology companies to build a pipeline to internships and jobs in industry. </p><p>Research in Agonafer's Nanoscale Energy and Interfacial Transport (NEIT) lab is funded by Cisco Systems and Google Inc. Earlier this year, he received the Electronics and Photonics Packaging Division 2019 Early Career Award from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He is a faculty adviser to the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, a member of the Center for Solar Energy and Energy Storage and faculty adviser to the National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE), all at Washington University. </p><SPAN ID="__publishingReusableFragment"></SPAN><br/>​ <div><div class="cstm-section"><div style="text-align: center;"><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; font-family: "open sans", sans-serif; font-size: 1.34em; text-align: center; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: #b0b0b0; padding-bottom: 12px;">Damena Agonafer<br/></h3></div><div style="text-align: center;"> <strong>  <img src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Agonafer,%20Damena%20%202018.jpg?RenditionID=3" alt="" style="margin: 5px;"/> <br/> </strong></div> <strong></strong> <div><ul style="padding-left: 20px; color: #343434;"><li>Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science<br/></li><li>Expertise: Development of novel materials for phase change heat transfer, thermo-chemical and electrochemical energy storage; Interfacial Transport Phenomena, Micro/Nanofluidics<br/></li><p style="color: #343434; text-align: center;"> <strong></strong><a href="/Profiles/Pages/Damena-Agonafer.aspx"><strong>View Bio</strong></a><br/></p></ul></div></div> <strong> <br/></strong></div><br/>Evaportation schematic of a non-axisymmetric droplet being continuously replenished through the central hold of a micropillar structure. Beth Miller 2019-12-03T06:00:00ZDamena Agonafer will identify different modes of heat transfer during the evaporation process of nonsymmetrical microdroplets as a way to dissipate heat from electronic devices with an NSF CAREER Award.<p>​Agonafer receives NSF CAREER Award to explore limits of evaporative cooling for electronic devices<br/></p>,-partner-universities-offer-collaborative-undergraduate-education-program.aspx1208McKelvey School of Engineering, partner universities offer collaborative undergraduate education program <img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/DSC00384.JPG?RenditionID=1" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><div id="__publishingReusableFragmentIdSection"><a href="/ReusableContent/36_.000">a</a></div><p>The McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis has teamed with three partner universities in Asia to offer undergraduate students from each school the opportunity to study and to broaden their research experience at WashU. </p><p>In the 3+1+X program, undergraduate students from Tsinghua University, Shandong University and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) who have completed three years of study would have the opportunity to study at Washington University for their fourth year, then have the option to remain at Washington University to complete a one-year master's degree or to begin doctoral studies. Likewise, Washington University students have the same opportunity to attend one of the three universities in Asia for their fourth year and remain for an optional master's or doctoral degree. The visiting students would earn a Certificate of International Study from the host university in addition to a bachelor's degree from their home institution.<br/></p><p>The first student to join a 3+1+X program at the McKelvey School of Engineering is Junlong Huang, a student from Tsinghua University. Huang is studying in the Department of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering this academic year and is being co-advised by Young-Shin Jun, professor of energy, environmental & chemical engineering, and Brent Williams, the Raymond R. Tucker Distinguished InCEES Career Development Associate Professor of energy, environmental & chemical engineering. Huang's research focuses on the impacts of cast iron pipes in drinking water distribution system of the UV/Persulfate treatment process. Students from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and Shandong University are expected to study at WashU beginning in the 2020-21 academic year. <br/></p><div class="row"><div class="column"></div><div class="column"></div></div><p>"As McKelvey Engineering grows the breadth and depth of its research, we are working to expand our connections to important engineering schools around the globe," said Aaron Bobick, dean and James M. McKelvey Professor. "The 3+1+X program is an innovative approach to fostering great collaboration with key partner universities."</p><p>In addition to the student exchange, the universities plan to host research symposia every one to two years for faculty from each institution, as well as provide visiting scholar opportunities to faculty and doctoral students from each institution. The visiting undergraduate students would have the opportunity to conduct research with faculty from the partner institutions.</p><p> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/3%20plus%201%20plus%20X.jpg" class="ms-rtePosition-4" alt="" style="margin: 5px;"/> <br/> </p><p> <sub><em>From left: 1) Junlong Huang. 2) Dean Bobick signs an agreement with officials from Tsinghua University in China agreed to the 3+1+X program earlier in 2019. 3) Dean Bobick with Professor Tim Cheng from the School of Engineering at Hong Kong University of Science & Technology.</em></sub><br/></p> <p>"The symposia and visits by partner faculty and doctoral students will enhance the research collaborations between the two institutions, and while it is not mandatory, the hope is that the 3+1+X undergraduate students could be co-advised by faculty from both WashU and the partner institution, further building on the research topics identified in the symposia," said Teresa Sarai, assistant dean for international relations in the McKelvey School of Engineering. <br/></p><p>The McKelvey School of Engineering will team with Tsinghua's internationally prestigious School of Environment, which is among the world's top 20 programs in environmental sciences, specializing in environmental chemistry and microbiology, environmental engineering, and environmental planning and management. Several WashU faculty earned degrees at Tsinghua, including Peng Bai, assistant professor of energy, environmental & chemical engineering; Tao Ju, vice dean for research and professor of computer science; and Xuan "Silvia" Zhang, assistant professor of electrical & systems engineering. <br/></p><p>Most departments in the McKelvey School of Engineering will partner with HKUST's School of Engineering. The highly-ranked HKUST is one of the fastest-growing universities in the world. Its School of Engineering is the largest of the four schools within HKUST and was ranked number 18 globally in the QS World University Rankings subject 2019 in Engineering and Technology.<br/></p><p>The partnership with Shandong University will focus primarily on computer science and engineering students from the Taishan College of Shandong University, an elite and highly selective honors college for students in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and computer science. Taishan College serves as a training ground for top-notch students in these basic disciplines. <br/></p><p>"The Department of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering and the renowned Center for Aerosol Science and Engineering (CASE) have a long-standing relationship with counterparts at Tsinghua University working through the McDonnell Academy Global Energy and Environmental Partnership (MAGEEP)," said Pratim Biswas, assistant vice chancellor, chair of the Department of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering and the Lucy & Stanley Lopata Professor. "This program will enable the brightest undergraduate students to get engaged in cutting-edge research and provide an opportunity to then move onto doctoral programs at either institution, but working with faculty mentors at both universities."<br/></p> <SPAN ID="__publishingReusableFragment"></SPAN> <br/>Officials from McKelvey School of Engineering and Hong Kong University of Science & Technology signed an agreement for the new program this fall in Hong Kong.Beth Miller 2019-12-02T06:00:00ZMcKelvey School of Engineering and three partner universities in Asia now offer undergraduate students a unique study and research experience.,-Peterson-says.aspx1204Engineering education needs to create innovation in everything, Peterson says<img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/191025_jubel_symposium_0025%20copy.jpg?RenditionID=2" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><div id="__publishingReusableFragmentIdSection"><a href="/ReusableContent/36_.000">a</a></div><p>Higher education is undergoing a transformation in how we view and think about it. Previously, people thought an educated population was good for the nation, but today, it's a personal benefit for the individual, said G.P. "Bud" Peterson, president emeritus and Regents Professor in the Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. </p><p>Peterson was the keynote speaker at the Oct. 25 symposium celebrating the opening of Henry A. and Elvira H. Jubel Hall, the recently completed building that houses the Department of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science on the East End of Washington University in St. Louis' campus. A gift from the Henry A. Jubel Foundation funded Jubel Hall, which contains classrooms, laboratories, faculty offices, gathering and study areas and the Spartan Light Metal Products Maker Space. In this building, mechanical engineers will work closely with physicists, chemists, biologists and chemical and biomedical engineers to promote the convergence of mechanics, materials science and nanotechnology.<br/></p><p>"A few weeks ago we dedicated this building during an event that celebrated the many donors and campus leaders who helped make possible Jubel Hall and the other buildings East End Transformation," said Aaron Bobick, dean of the McKelvey School of Engineering and the James M. McKelvey Professor, to open the session. "Today we, the McKelvey Engineering community at Washington University, celebrate the discipline and opportunity that is Engineering. It is about the future. Our future."</p><p>Peterson focused on the state of higher education. <br/></p><p>"What can higher education change?" Peterson asked. "We need to teach students to think critically, and we need to create innovation in everything that we do. We need to help students understand how to take massive amounts of information and create knowledge." </p><p>There are numerous policy implications of these changes, Peterson said, including transparency, privacy and ethics, accuracy and addressing the "digital divide" by providing access to broadband to rural communities. </p><p>The advantages to in-person higher education, compared with online programs, include a culture of innovation in teaching, creating a culture of globalization, innovation in research and economic development, Peterson said.<br/></p><p>Innovation was a theme in the panel discussion, which included Earl Dowell, former dean of the School of Engineering at Duke University; Christine Lorenz, chief operating officer of Cohesic Inc. and a Washington University alumna; Nancy Sottos, the Donald B. Willet Professor of Engineering in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Beckman Institute at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; and Mark Spector, program officer in the Advanced Naval Platforms Division at the Office of Naval Research.</p><p> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/191025_jubel_symposium_0081%20copy.jpg" alt="" style="margin: 5px; width: 1179px;"/> <br/> <em> <sub>(From left) Earl Dowell, Christine Lorenz, Nancy Sottos, and Mark Spector comprised a panel that discussed the future of mechanical engineering.<br/> Photo by Whitney Curtis.</sub></em><em></em> </p><p>"I see my job as an investor in innovation," Spector said. "The challenge we face is the security field is the pace of innovation we see. A lot of what we're doing is figuring out how we respond to rapidly increasing innovation and technological advances as we now face peer and nonpeer competitors in the global space that we haven't faced since the Sputnik era."</p><p>Lorenz, who was an associate professor of medicine at WashU's School of Medicine from 1995-2000, addressed how innovation can improve health care. </p><p>"The biggest challenge I see having worked in hospitals is that it's like trying to force a high-tech aircraft engine into a horse-drawn cart," said Lorenz, who earned a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from WashU in 1986. "Engineering could help with uncovering maybe not the most glamorous problems in the hospital, but there is a lot to be done with the infrastructure. There are challenges in infection control in hospitals with superbugs, in materials research, and ways to keep patients out of hospitals in the first place." </p><p>In addition, the panelists addressed the need for more diversity and participation by students from underrepresented groups in the engineering field. Sottos said she has faced the issue for her whole career as a woman in materials science. </p><p>"One thing that's important for increasing participation is that the price of education is insane now for most people," she said. "Engineering is a particularly expensive endeavor of education. Focusing on scholarships and financial aid is critical."</p><p>Dowell said engineering education is key to advancing innovation. </p><p>"Being at Washington University is a great place to start, certainly in aerospace," Dowell said. "If you have a first-class education, the world is your oyster. There are only about 2 million engineers in the country. We are the ones who drive the system."<br/></p> <SPAN ID="__publishingReusableFragment"></SPAN><br/>G.P. "Bud" Peterson, president emeritus of Georgia Tech, delivered the keynote speech at the Jubel Symposium Oct. 25. Photo by Whitney Curtis. Beth Miller 2019-11-21T06:00:00ZEngineering schools need to create innovation in everything they do, said G.P. “Bud” Peterson at the Jubel Symposium Oct. 25. cells offer in-depth look at waves, acoustics and vibrations <img alt="" src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Meacham_Mark.jpg?RenditionID=1" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><div id="__publishingReusableFragmentIdSection"><a href="/ReusableContent/36_.000">a</a></div><p align="center"> <video controls="controls" style="width: 75%; max-width: 854px; height: auto;"><source src="/news/Documents/05_circular_2_5MHz_400px_25fps_AVI-p1dq2d70s41dqm1jnq4hfhn4.mp4" type="video/mp4"></source></video><br/><em> <sub>This video shows swimming Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells in an acoustic microfluidic device created in Mark Meacham’s lab. After inserting the cells into the device, researchers gradually vary the frequency of device vibration. At different frequencies, the cells group together to form various shapes.</sub></em><br/></p><p>Engineers often create devices to study forces, motion or other behaviors found in nature. J. Mark Meacham, a mechanical engineer in the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis, is doing it in reverse — he's using algae cells to study the devices he creates in his lab. </p><p>Meacham, assistant professor of mechanical engineering & materials science, received a five-year, $500,000 CAREER Award from the National Science Foundation to assess how well the acoustic microfluidic devices he develops work by using active, swimming algae cells as measurement probes. CAREER awards support junior faculty who model the role of teacher-scholar through outstanding research, excellence in education and the integration of education and research within the context of the mission of their organization. One-third of current McKelvey Engineering faculty have received the award.</p><p>Acoustofluidics combines acoustics, or sound, with fluid mechanics. Meacham will build on existing work to develop a new technique to characterize the acoustic pressure field in his microscale acoustofluidic devices. </p><p>"Research-scale demonstrations of these acoustic microfluidic technologies have shown a lot of promise for the biological and biomedical sciences, but they're not yet common in clinical and industrial environments, partly because their operation is inconsistent," Meacham said. "While computer models can be used to improve designs, devices often don't perform as expected. It's hard to assess and compare real-world performance of different devices experimentally, so that's where we come in."</p><p>Like the regular patterns of peaks and valleys that can form when two school children shake the ends of a jump rope in sync, the acoustic wave fields in microfluidic channels create regular patterns when the device is shaken, Meacham said. This behavior, termed the device's harmonic response, is well understood for channels with simple rectangular or circular shapes; however, it is challenging to predict for devices with complicated geometry. </p><p>Meacham's lab will perform experiments with swimming cells of the algae <em>Chlamydomonas reinhardtii</em> to overcome this challenge. They will insert the cells into the device then gradually vary the frequency of device vibration while observing how the cells respond. At different frequencies, the cells group together to form various shapes. In between these frequencies, they return to swimming randomly as the frequency continuously changes. For example, cells can form one, two, three or more straight lines within a rectangular channel and bullseye-like patterns in a circular chamber. The team will record this data, then use results from these simple geometries to determine the relationship between the cell distribution that they observe and the field shape and strength, which are key metrics of device performance. Finally, the method will be applied to more complex microfluidic devices.</p><p>"To our knowledge, there's no other way to continuously assess the performance of any device over such a large frequency band," Meacham said. "Not only does it allow you to find these individual best peaks, or resonances, but it also shows you other non-ideal resonances of the system so those conditions can be avoided."</p><p>Meacham compared his work to ultrasound imaging. </p><p>"In ultrasound imaging, we send acoustic waves into tissue, then the waves hit tissue with different properties and reflect back, forming an image based on this contrast," he said. "We use the same type of equipment you might use for ultrasound imaging, but instead of sending an acoustic wave into tissue and reading the reflection, we send the vibrational wave into a microfluidic device, and it shakes the whole device. That transfer of energy travels off of the walls of the fluidic channels, reflecting back and forth and creating a standing wave. The acoustic wave field sees the swimming cells due to their contrast with the fluid, and the cells feel a force that can be used to move or hold them in place."</p><p>Meacham will share his findings through educational materials and experiments on vibrations, waves and resonances developed for area students in Kindergarten through high school in collaboration with the university's Institute for School Partnership. In addition, he plans to develop a new Engineering course in physical acoustics and another in which students design and create custom musical instruments in the Spartan Light Metal Products Makerspace in Henry A. & Elvira H. Jubel Hall. </p><p>"I want to have students learn how instrument shapes, sizes and types of designs affect the music you can make, much like the swimming cells teach us how these aspects affect the frequencies, or pitches, at which our microfluidic devices operate best," he said. </p> <SPAN ID="__publishingReusableFragment"></SPAN><br/>​<span> <div class="cstm-section"><h3>Mark Meacham<br/></h3><div style="text-align: center;"> <strong><a href="/Profiles/Pages/Mark-Meacham.aspx"><img src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Meacham_Mark.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-3" alt="" style="margin: 5px;"/>​</a> </strong></div><div style="text-align: center;"><ul style="padding-left: 20px; color: #343434; caret-color: #343434; text-align: left;"><li>Expertise: Acoustic microfluidics; biomedical microdevices; multiphase transport phenomena; control and observation of physical, chemical, and biological processes at the microscale<br/></li></ul><a href="/Profiles/Pages/Mark-Meacham.aspx" style="background-color: #ffffff; text-align: center;">>> View Bio</a><strong><br/></strong></div></div></span>​<br/>Beth Miller 2019-11-19T06:00:00ZJ. Mark Meacham is using swimming algae cells to study the performance of the acoustic microfluidic devices he creates in his lab with a CAREER Award from the National Science Foundation. students win awards at ORS Spine Section meeting<img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/doctoral-student-ors-awards.jpg?RenditionID=1" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><p>​Marcos Barcellona, a doctoral student in the Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Garrett Easson, a doctoral student in the Department of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, received awards during the 2019 Spine Section meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS).</p>Barcellona won the ORS Philadelphia Spine Research Society (PSRS) Trainee Poster Award for Outstanding Scientific Research for his paper titled “Engineering Laminin-Mimetic Peptide Systems for 2D and 3D Support of NP Cell Culture.” Easson received the ORS Spine Section Innovation Award.<div><br/></div><div>Barcellona is a member of the lab of Lori Setton, professor and chair of the Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Easson is a graduate research assistant in the lab of Simon Tang, assistant professor biomedical engineering and of orthopedic surgery in the School of Medicine.<br/></div>Easson, left, and Barcellona were recognized for their achievements during the 2019 Spine Section meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society.Danielle Lacey2019-11-18T06:00:00ZMarcos Barcellona and Garrett Easson were honored during the Spine Section meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society in Philadelphia.