https://engineering.wustl.edu/news/Pages/Former-professor-Paris-law-of-engineering-lives-on-beyond-his-death.aspx589Former professor Paris’ law of engineering lives on beyond his death<p>​Outside of Murphy, few humans have a law named after them.   <br/></p><img alt="Paul Paris" src="/news/PublishingImages/Paul%20Paris.JPG?RenditionID=2" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><p>Paul C. Paris, longtime professor of mechanical engineering in the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis, was the notable exception.</p><p>Paris, who died Jan. 15, 2017, of natural causes at age 86, was known for many things, but one of the most remarkable is the equation he developed relating repeated mechanical loads to crack growth. </p><blockquote>Known as Paris' law, the equation predicts how fast a structural crack will grow in response to repeated cycles of stress, thus providing a reliable, theory-driven estimate of a machine part's life. </blockquote><p>His paper on the equation was published in 1961, but only after it was first rejected by three of the leading journals in the fracture mechanics field. Paris' law now is routinely used to design parts that vibrate, such as in commercial and military aircraft and ground vehicles.  </p><p>His work created the basis for new analytical methods to address fatigue crack problems, which are still widely used to assess safety problems in an array of devices and structures where cracks pose a significant safety or economic concern. </p><p>His insights on fracture mechanics continue to set the standard in engineering education worldwide. His no-holds-barred outlook on life and colorful personality also left an indelible mark on the WashU community. </p><p>"Paul was an outstanding teacher and mentor, accomplished at discussing his work with students in the classroom, engineers in industry and academics in research," said Kenneth L. Jerina, the Earl E & Myrtle E Walker Professor of Engineering and friend and colleague of Paris for more than four decades. "Yet, he was personable, flamboyant, colorful, dramatic, insistent and sometimes controversial. </p><p>"He went to great lengths to be an effective teacher," said Jerina, also associate department chair for mechanical engineering. "One semester he returned from a European trip with two broken arms he'd suffered in a fall. He finished the semester seated in front of the class lecturing while colleague Hiroshi Tada wrote notes and equations on the chalkboard to aid his students." </p><blockquote>Paris' worldwide reputation was well established long before he joined Washington University as a professor of mechanics in 1976. </blockquote> <p>His career and his law were borne out of a new transportation age that featured diesel train engines and jet airliners replacing coal and props, respectively. In 1954, two mysterious crashes of avant garde de Havilland jets put the industry and the U.S. military on full alert. Eventually, engineers determined that the combination of fatigue, recycling of cabin pressure, stress and fracture contributed to the disintegration of the aircrafts. Cracks had developed in the fuselage, and the planes came apart. </p><p>The following year, Paris joined Boeing Co. in Seattle as a research associate asked to get to the bottom of the jet failures. Before Paris' law, there had been no theoretical basis for predictions of failure caused by cracks, just empirical estimations. </p><p>Paris first started teaching fracture mechanics short courses during his Boeing years from 1955-60. He held a teaching position at the University of Washington from 1957-60. He returned to academia in 1960 to earn a doctorate from Lehigh University in 1962 and was on the faculty there until 1972. He was a visiting professor of engineering at Brown University from 1974-76. </p><p>Paris received many awards and honors over his long career, notably the Crichlow Trust Prize of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, which included a citation and $100,000 honorarium; in 2009, he received an honorary doctorate from, fittingly, the University of Paris West.</p><p>For most of his WashU years, Paris lived on a farm on the outskirts of St. Louis. Farming was one of his hobbies, as was flying (he had a pilot's license), fine wines and France. He will be remembered for his rare, regal manner, highlighted by a dramatic shock of white hair and eyes that were intense, wise and warm. Through his books, teaching and professional appearances, he affected hundreds of thousands of engineers worldwide, and because of his law, his influence endures.<br/></p>Paul ParisTony Fitzpatrick 2017-03-21T05:00:00ZPaul Paris, who died Jan. 15, 2017, of natural causes at age 86, was known for many things, but one of the most remarkable is the equation he developed relating repeated mechanical loads to crack growth.
https://engineering.wustl.edu/news/Pages/Engineering-students-receive-prestigious-Graduate-Research-Fellowships-.aspx588Engineering students receive prestigious Graduate Research Fellowships <p>​Three seniors and a doctoral student in the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis have been chosen for the competitive National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. <br/></p><img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/washu%20engineering%20commencement.JPG?RenditionID=2" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><p>The fellowship, the oldest of its kind, awards a three-year annual stipend of $34,000 as well as a $12,000 allowance for tuition and fees, opportunities for international research and professional development, and the freedom to conduct research at any accredited U.S. institution of graduate education. From more than 13,000 applications received for the 2017 competition, the NSF awarded 2,000 fellowships.</p><p>The new fellows are:</p><ul><li><p><strong>Savannah Est</strong>, a senior majoring in biomedical engineering with a minor in materials science & engineering;</p></li><li><p><strong>Roger Albert Iyengar</strong>, a senior majoring in computer science; </p></li><li><p><strong>Corban Swain</strong>, a senior majoring in biomedical engineering;</p></li><li><p><strong>Ian Berke</strong>, a first-year doctoral student in biomedical engineering. </p></li></ul><p>Three undergraduate Engineering students and two alumni received honorable mentions, which is considered a significant national academic achievement. They are: </p><ul><li><p><strong>Ananya Benegal</strong>, a senior majoring in biomedical engineering with a minor in mechanical engineering and a master's student in mechanical engineering;</p></li><li><p><strong>Arnold Tao</strong>, a senior majoring in biomedical engineering;</p></li><li><p><strong>Louis Shen Wang</strong>, a senior majoring in chemical engineering with a minor in chemistry;</p></li><li><p><strong>Timothy Bartholomew</strong>, who earned a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering in 2015 and is now a graduate student at Carnegie-Mellon University.</p></li><li><p><strong>Pratik Singh Sachdeva</strong>, who earned a bachelor's degree in applied science in 2015 and is now a graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley.<br/></p></li></ul><p>The Graduate Research Fellowship has a history of selecting recipients who achieve high levels of success in their future academic and professional careers. Many become life-long leaders that contribute significantly to both scientific innovation and teaching. Past fellows include numerous Nobel Prize winners; U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu; Google founder Sergey Brin; and Freakonomics co-author Steven Levitt. Since 1952, NSF has funded more than 50,000 Graduate Research Fellowships out of more than 500,000 applicants. <br/></p>Beth Miller 2017-03-20T05:00:00ZThree seniors and a doctoral student have been chosen for the competitive National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.
https://engineering.wustl.edu/news/Pages/Guy-Genin-AIMBE-Fellow.aspx580Genin elected AIMBE Fellow<p><a href="/Profiles/Pages/Guy-Genin.aspx">​Guy M. Genin</a>, professor of mechanical engineering & materials science in the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis, has been elected to the 2017 College of Fellows of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering.<br/></p><img alt="" src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Genin_Guy.jpg?RenditionID=2" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><p>Fellows of the institute represent the top 2 percent of medical and biological engineers in the United States and include the most accomplished engineering and medical school chairs, research directors, professors, innovators and successful entrepreneurs. Genin will be inducted with 145 colleagues at AIMBE’s annual meeting March 20 in Washington, D.C.</p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: "times new roman"; font-size: medium;"></p><p>Genin’s research focuses on mechanobiology and aims to understand and harness the role of force in living systems. His group works on pathologies whose underpinnings have an important mechanical component, including cardiac fibrosis and pathologies of interfaces in the body. He also applies his techniques to the study of interfaces within plants with the overall goal of finding ways to manipulate plants using mechanical force. Genin is WashU’s principal investigator for a five-year, $25 million National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center grant focused on this area. This center, the NSF Center for Engineering Mechanobiologym aims to develop mechanobiology into an established discipline and produce a new generation of scientific leaders.</p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: "times new roman"; font-size: medium;"></p><blockquote>Genin is also known for his work in innovation and entrepreneurship. He is chief engineer for WashU’s Center for Innovation in Neuroscience and Technology and has spun out two companies and produced several licensed patents.</blockquote> <p style="color: #000000; font-family: "times new roman"; font-size: medium;"></p><p>Genin is the recipient of a number of other prestigious awards, including the Yangtze River Scholar award in 2015, the highest award issued to an individual in higher education by China’s Ministry of Education, an honor awarded to few people not born in China. He is the McDonnell Academy Ambassador to Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU) in China, and serves as Changjiang Professor on XJTU’s faculty. Genin joined the Washington University faculty in 1999. He earned bachelor's and master's degrees from Case Western Reserve University; master's (S.M.) and doctoral degrees in applied mechanics and solid mechanics from Harvard University; and did postdoctoral training at Cambridge and Brown universities.</p><p style="color: #000000; font-family: "times new roman"; font-size: medium;"></p><p>AIMBE's College of Fellows is comprised of about 1,500 individuals who have made significant contributions to the medical and biological engineering community in academia, industry, government and education that have transformed the world. Fellows are nominated each year by their peers and work toward realizing AIMBE's vision to provide medical and biological engineering innovation for the benefit of humanity.<br/></p><p> <br/> </p> <span><hr/></span> <p>The School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis focuses intellectual efforts through a new convergence paradigm and builds on strengths, particularly as applied to medicine and health, energy and environment, entrepreneurship and security. With 90 tenured/tenure-track and 40 additional full-time faculty, 1,200 undergraduate students, 1,200 graduate students and 21,000 alumni, we are working to leverage our partnerships with academic and industry partners — across disciplines and across the world — to contribute to solving the greatest global challenges of the 21st century.<br/></p>Guy GeninBeth Miller2017-02-22T06:00:00ZFellows of the institute represent the top 2 percent of medical and biological engineers in the United States and include the most accomplished engineering and medical school chairs, research directors, professors, innovators and successful entrepreneurs.
https://engineering.wustl.edu/news/Pages/MDPhD-student-honored-at-international-engineering-conference.aspx567MD/PhD student honored at international engineering conference<p>​A paper authored by an MD/PhD candidate at Washington University in St. Louis recently took first prize at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exhibition.</p><img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/Stephen%20Linderman.jpg?RenditionID=2" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><p>Stephen Linderman's paper, presenting technology for improving surgical suturing for better tendon repairs, won the top honor in the biomedical engineering and technology track at the exhibition — the world's largest, cross-disciplinary mechanical engineering conference. Linderman's research is conducted through the university's Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in the School of Medicine, and the Department of Biomedical Engineering in the School of Engineering & Applied Science.</p><p>"Surgical suturing is a crude mechanical solution," said Linderman, the paper's first author. "Sutures are in tension along their length, but the load is predominantly transferred to the surrounding tissue where sutures bend at anchor points, and this leads to failed surgeries. We found a simple way to improve repair schemes by minimizing stress concentrations, without complicating the surgeon's workflow."</p><p>The paper identified the combination of strength and stiffness needed for an adhesive on the sutures to improve a surgical repair. </p><p>"An adhesive layer that is too stiff will make things worse by concentrating stresses, and an adhesive that is too weak will fail without improving the repair," said the paper's senior author, <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Guy-Genin.aspx">Guy M. Genin</a>, a professor of mechanical engineering and materials science at the School of Engineering & Applied Science. "Steve's breakthroughs were to identify the 'sweet spot' and then identify the classes of materials whose properties land in that spot. It was exciting to present this at a venue like the IMECE, where we could get feedback on our ideas from researchers with depth in a broad range of disciplines."</p><blockquote>Linderman's team presented a set of preliminary results that show the idea will work, and it is working to commercialize the technology. </blockquote> <p>"The preliminary data are promising and exciting, and the next round of adhesives we are working on show great promise for clinical application," said one of the co-authors, Stavros Thomopoulos, a former Washington University medical and engineering faculty member now Vice Chair of Orthopedic Surgery at Columbia University.</p><p>"IMECE is the place for researchers to present breakthroughs across the entire range of mechanical engineering disciplines," said Christine M. Reilley, director of business development in the Engineering Sciences Segment at ASME. "We are thrilled to recognize Linderman and his colleagues on their contributions to the field and look forward to hearing the impact of their work on humankind." </p><p>Other Washington University authors on the paper include: Ioannis Kormpakis, a clinical and research fellow in orthopedic surgery; and Richard H. Gelberman, MD, former head of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Ulrike Wegst, of Dartmouth College, and Victor Birman, of the Missouri University of Science and Technology are also authors. </p><p> <br/> </p> <span> <hr/></span> <p>The School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis focuses intellectual efforts through a new convergence paradigm and builds on strengths, particularly as applied to medicine and health, energy and environment, entrepreneurship and security. With 90 tenured/tenure-track and 40 additional full-time faculty, 1,200 undergraduate students, 1,200 graduate students and 21,000 alumni, we are working to leverage our partnerships with academic and industry partners — across disciplines and across the world — to contribute to solving the greatest global challenges of the 21st century.<br/></p><p> <strong>The research was funded by Washington University through a Musculoskeletal Research Center Translational Grant and through the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant number UL1 TR000448. </strong></p><p> <strong>Linderman SW, Kormpakis I, Gelberman RH, Birman V, Wegst UGK, Thomopoulos S, Genin GM. (2016). IMECE2016-67522: Shear lag sutures: Improved suture repair through the use of adhesives. ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference & Exhibition, Phoenix, AZ, November 11-17, 2016.</strong></p><p>​</p><p><br/></p> <span> <div class="cstm-section"><h3>Meet Stephen Linderman</h3><div><ul><li><span style="font-size: 1em;">MD/PhD Candidate</span><br/></li><li><span style="font-size: 1em;">President, <a href="http://slinghealth.org/">Sling Health Network (formerly IDEA Labs)</a> - a student-run biotechnology incubator</span></li></ul></div></div></span>Stephen Linderman2017-01-31T06:00:00ZStephen Linderman's paper, presenting technology for improving surgical suturing for better tendon repairs, won the top honor in the biomedical engineering and technology track at the exhibition.
https://engineering.wustl.edu/news/Pages/Storing-and-testing-at-any-temperature.aspx557Storing and testing at any temperature<div class="div.youtube-wrap"><div class="iframe-container"> <iframe width="854" height="480" frameborder="0" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/aBN9bbYnyXQ"></iframe> </div> </div><p>Many diagnostic tests use antibodies to help confirm a myriad of medical conditions, from Zika infections to heart ailments and even some forms of cancer. Antibodies capture and help detect proteins, enzymes, bacteria and viruses present in injuries and illnesses, and must be kept at a constant low temperature to ensure their viability — often requiring refrigeration powered by electricity. This can make diagnostic testing in underdeveloped countries, disaster or remote areas and even war zones extremely expensive and difficult.</p> <img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/Antibodies-600x400.jpg?RenditionID=1" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><p>​A team of engineers from Washington University in St. Louis and Air Force Research Laboratory have discovered an inexpensive work-around: a protective coating that could completely eliminate the need for cold storage and change the scope of medical diagnostic testing in places where it’s often needed the most.</p><p>“In many developing countries, electricity is not guaranteed,” said <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Srikanth-Singamaneni.aspx">Srikanth Singamaneni</a>, associate professor of mechanical engineering and materials science in Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis.</p><p>“So how do we best get them medical diagnostics? We did not know how to solve this problem previously.”</p><p>Singamaneni’s team previously used tiny gold nanorods in bio-diagnostic research, measuring changes in their optical properties to quantify protein concentrations in bio-fluids: the higher a concentration, the higher the likelihood of injury or disease.</p><p>In this new research, <a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201604433/full">published in Advanced Materials</a>, Singamaneni worked with faculty from Washington University’s School of Medicine and researchers from the Air Force Research Lab to grow metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) around antibodies attached to gold nanorods. The crystalline MOFs formed a protective layer around the antibodies and prevented them from losing activity at elevated temperatures. The protective effect lasted for a week even when the samples were stored at 60°C.</p><p>“This technology would allow point-of-care screening for biomarkers of diseases in urban and rural clinic settings where immediate patient follow-up is critical to treatment and wellbeing,” said Dr. Jeremiah J. Morrissey, professor of anesthesiology, Division of Clinical and Translational Research, Washington University School of Medicine and a co-author on the paper.</p><p>“On the spot testing eliminates the time lag in sending blood/urine samples to a central lab for testing and in tracking down patients to discuss test results. In addition, it may reduce costs associated with refrigerated shipping and storage.”</p><p>The protective MOF layer can be quickly and easily removed from the antibodies with a simple rinse of slightly acidic water, making a diagnostic strip or paper immediately ready to use. Singamaneni says this proof of concept research is now ready to be tested for clinical samples.</p><p>“As long as you are using antibodies, you can use this technology,” said Congzhou Wang, a postdoctoral researcher in Singamaneni’s lab and the paper’s lead author. “In bio-diagnostics from here on out, we will no longer need refrigeration.”</p><p>“The MOF-based protection of antibodies on sensor surfaces is ideal for preserving biorecognition abilities of sensors that are designed for deployment in the battlefield,” said Dr. Rajesh R. Naik, 711th Human Performance Wing of the Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, and a co-corresponding author of the paper.  “It provides remarkable stability and extremely easy to remove right before use.”</p><p>Singamaneni may be reached for interviews at <a href="mailto:singamaneni@wustl.edu">singamaneni@wustl.edu</a></p><p rtenodeid="6"><strong>This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant Nos. FA9550-15-1-0228 and 12RX11COR), AFRL/711 HPW, and the National Institutes of Health (Grant Nos. R21DK100759 and R01 CA141521).</strong></p><p rtenodeid="7"><strong>Patent and other support is provided by the Washington University Office of Technology Management, which assists university faculty in the transfer of technology from the lab to the global marketplace.</strong></p><div><br/></div> <br/> <br/> <span> <div class="cstm-section"><h3>Nanomaterials Research at WashU Engineering </h3><div><ul><li> <strong style="font-size: 1em;"><a href="/news/Pages/Dirty-to-drinkable.aspx">Engineers develop novel hybrid nanomaterials to transform water</a> </strong> <br/></li><li> <strong style="font-size: 1em;"><a href="/news/Pages/Using-nanotechnology-to-benefit-energy-the-environment-health.aspx">Using nanotechnology to benefit energy, the environment, health</a> </strong></li><li> <a href="/news/Pages/WashU-engineers-to-use-cyborg-insects-as-biorobotic-sensing-machines.aspx">Engineers to use cyborg insects as biorobotic sensing machines</a></li></ul></div></div></span>Engineers at Washington University in St. Louis develop new nanoparticle technology that eliminates the need for cold storage in some medical diagnostic tests.Erika Ebsworth-Gooldhttps://source.wustl.edu/2017/01/storing-testing-temperature/2017-01-04T06:00:00ZEngineers at Washington University in St. Louis develop new nanoparticle technology that eliminates the need for cold storage in some medical diagnostic tests.<p>New nanoparticle discovery may eliminate cold storage for some tests</p>
https://engineering.wustl.edu/news/Pages/Engineer-develops-model-to-predict-behavior-of-cell-clusters.aspx541Engineer develops model to predict behavior of cell clustersAn engineer at Washington University in St. Louis discovered a model in which the mechanics of the cells’ environment can predict their movement, a finding that ultimately could mean confining cell transition in tumors and potentially making cancer “a substantially less deadly disease,” said the lead researcher.​<br/><br/> <div class="div.youtube-wrap"><div class="iframe-container"> <iframe width="854" height="480" frameborder="0" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/q8kr7hT8EzU"></iframe> </div> ​</div><p></p>​<img alt="Amit Pathak" src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Pathak_Amit.jpg?RenditionID=6" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><p><a href="/Profiles/Pages/Amit-Pathak.aspx">​​​​​Amit Pathak</a>, assistant professor of mechanical engineering in the School of Engineering & Applied Science,  found that a cell-transitioning process implicated in tumor metastasis is influenced by the cells’ environment.</p><p>In new research published in Biophysical Journal, Pathak used computational modeling to show that epithelial cells are more likely to break off from their clusters in a confined environment, in either stiff or soft tissue. Pathak’s model is the first to show that various mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix can predict the state of cell clusters of defined shapes and sizes.</p><p>Epithelial cells, which are found in blood vessels and in the lining of various organs in the body, can change into mesenchymal cells, which are important in both embryonic development and cancer metastasis. In previous research, published in Scientific Reports, Pathak and Samila Nasrollahi, a doctoral student in mechanical engineering, showed that the stiffer the tissues, the more likely a process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) will take place.</p><p>Surprisingly, the EMT goes up in when cell clusters are confined within 3-D environments, compared with standard 2-D cell-culture conditions. EMT comes into play in the development of embryos, when epithelial cells break out of clusters and transition into mesenchymal cells to aid organ development. However, it also is a crucial process in cancer metastasis, said Pathak.</p><p>“In cancer, if tumor cells do not decluster and escape, it is a favorable scenario because the tumor will stay in one place,” said Pathak, whose lab studies mechanobiology, or the intersection of mechanics and biology. “But when a cancer cell moves and leaves the tumor, it goes to another place and populates new tumors. If we can stop the EMT process right at the primary tumor, then cancer will be a substantially less deadly disease.”</p><p>​</p> <span><hr/></span> <p>The School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis focuses intellectual efforts through a new convergence paradigm and builds on strengths, particularly as applied to medicine and health, energy and environment, entrepreneurship and security. With 88 tenured/tenure-track and 40 additional full-time faculty, 1,200 undergraduate students, 1,200 graduate students and 23,000 alumni, we are working to leverage our partnerships with academic and industry partners — across disciplines and across the world — to contribute to solving the greatest global challenges of the 21st century.</p><p> <br/> </p><p>​</p> <span> <div class="cstm-section"><h3>Intersection of Mechanics & Biology</h3><div style="text-align: center;">“In cancer, if tumor cells do not decluster and escape, it is a favorable scenario because the tumor will stay in one place, but when a cancer cell moves and leaves the tumor, it goes to another place and populates new tumors. If we can stop the EMT process right at the primary tumor, then cancer will be a substantially less deadly disease.”</div><div style="text-align: center;"><br/></div><div style="text-align: center;">- <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Amit-Pathak.aspx">Amit Pathak​</a><strong style="color: #222222;">​</strong><br/></div></div></span>Amit PathakBeth Miller2016-11-15T06:00:00ZA mechanical engineer at Washington University in St. Louis discovered that a cell-transitioning process implicated in tumor metastasis is influenced by the mechanics of the cells’ environment.

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